By Ronold W.P. King, Margaret Owens, Tai T. Wu
The propagation of waves alongside and around the boundary among media with varied attribute velocities is far extra complex whilst the resource is on or close to the boundary than while it really is far-off and the incident waves are airplane. Examples of waves generated through localized assets close to a boundary are the electromagnetic waves from the currents in a dipole at the floor of the earth and the seismic waves from a slip occasion in a fault within the earth's crust just like the San Andreas fault in California. either contain one of those floor wave that's known as a lateral wave in electro magnetics and a head wave in seismology. because the are analogous and the latter is extra simply visualized, it truly is comfortably used right here to introduce and describe this crucial form of floor wave utilizing the knowledge of Y. Ben Zion and P. Malin ("San Andreas Fault region Head Waves close to Parkfield, CA," technology 251, 1592-1594, 29 March 1991).
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Extra resources for Lateral Electromagnetic Waves: Theory and Applications to Communications, Geophysical Exploration, and Remote Sensing
The electromagnetic field of electric type has quite different properties from the field of magnetic type. Most significant is the vanishing of the reflected field in Region 2 when k2 > kl and the angle of incidence 8 2 has a particular value 8 2B known as the Brewster angle. 7, respectively. 65b) and the propagation vectors k2 for the reflected field and k1 for the transmitted field are mutually perpendicular.
Lo = 411" X 10- 7 Him. 1), Je is the volume density of externally maintained or impressed electric current in the localized regions occupied by sources such as electric dipoles or antennas embedded in the ambient medium. 11) Alternatively, Je may be an equivalent polarization current in which case Je = -iwpe, pe = -V'. pe, where pe is the impressed volume density of polarization. Similarly, Me is the impressed volume density of magnetization in a localized region, Je = V' x Me is the associated magnetization current, and pe = O.
Electromagnetic Preliminaries x p . 15b) p Etj> = -Ex sin 4> + Ey cos4>. 16) Hence, for the x-directed electric dipole, E = _ iwl'o [2ik _ .! 19) B -_ -1'0 -Z (ik - - 411" r . " ~)eikrSin4>. 8). 3. 2) become ·k 2 \1 x (B' - JLoMe) = __ z - E'; \1 x E' W = iwB'; \1. 1) \1. E' = O. 2) Now let L =E'. 3) Then, \1. 4) ik2 \1. K = o. 2) shows that these equations are the same with B - = L; EE = -K. 6) gives _ B. 8) JLo where the prime indicates a field generated by a unit magnetic dipole, and the absence of a prime the field generated by a unit electric dipole.
Lateral Electromagnetic Waves: Theory and Applications to Communications, Geophysical Exploration, and Remote Sensing by Ronold W.P. King, Margaret Owens, Tai T. Wu