By Loren T. Stuckenbruck
The general public worship of the risen Christ as depicted in John's Apocalypse at once contradicts the guiding angel's emphasis that simply God will be worshiped (Revelation 19:10; 22:8-9). In Angel Veneration and Christology, Loren Stuckenbruck explores this contradiction in gentle of angel veneration in Early Judaism.
Stuckenbruck surveys a wide selection of Jewish traditions concerning angelic worship and discovers proscriptions opposed to sacrificing to angels; prohibitions opposed to making photographs of angels; rejections of the "two powers"; second-century Christian apologetic accusations particularly directed opposed to Jews; and, most significantly, the refusal culture, common in Jewish and Jewish-Christian writings, in which angelic messengers refuse the veneration of the seer and exhort the worship of God alone.
While proof for the perform of angel veneration among Jews of antiquity (Qumran, pseudepigraphal literature, and inscriptions from Asia Minor) doesn't provide the rapid historical past for the worship of Christ, Stuckenbruck demonstrates that the actual fact that safeguards to a monotheistic framework have been issued in any respect throws gentle at the Christian perform of worshiping Jesus. the way in which the Apocalypse adapts the refusal culture illuminates Revelation's declarations approximately and depictions of Jesus. although the refusal culture itself purely safeguards the worship of God, Stuckenbruck lines how the culture has been break up in order that the angelophanic parts have been absorbed into the christophany. As Stuckenbruck exhibits, an angelomorphic Christology, shared by way of the writer of Revelation and its readers, capabilities to maintain the author's monotheistic emphasis in addition to to stress Christ's superiority over the angels―setting the degree for the worship of the Lamb in a monotheistic framework that doesn't contradict the angelic directive to worship God by myself.
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Extra info for Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John
Develop ments leading up to the end of the first century need to be taken into ac count as well; i t is perhaps during this period that certain problems and conceptions, as expressed within Jewish literature, were assimilated into or paralleled by Christian reflection on the significance of Christ. 37 In this connection, i t may be helpful to distinguish between devo tion within a "cultic" setting and devotion as expressed in the context of liturgy. I f a "cult" implies a series of rituals organized around a specific deity or group of deities, "liturgy" expresses but a part which, within a "cultic" context, serves the ends of the ritual.
J. VERMASEREN, Studies in Gnosticism and Helle nistic Religions. Festschrift for G. J. Brill, 1981) 78-91. CUL1ANU rightly distinguishes "ditheism (or binitarianism) and dualism" (p. 78) and sees in the former a Jewish "pre-Christian" conception which was transformed into the latter through the fusion of the notion of an gelic guardians of the nations and a categorical conviction (post-70 CE) of Roman rule as satanic. B. Mohr [Paul Siebeck], 1985), esp. pp. 241- 338. See also "The New Religionsgeschichtliche Schule: The Quest for Jewish Christology," SBL 1991 Seminar Papers, ed.
224; Dec. 31,51,61; Abr. 98). The use of king ship as a metaphor for monotheistic belief in these texts is discussed by Erik PETERSON, "Der Monotheismus als politisches Problem," in Theologische Traktate (München: Kösel, 1951) 49-64. Since the precise definition given by HAYMAN to "monarchism" is not always reflected in these texts, i t is perhaps best, in order to avoid confusion, to restrict references to the term to its ancient application. 52 HAYMAN is, unfortunately, too quick to correlate the notion of gels of the nations (which for him reflects a "dualistic pattern") and idea of complementary figures, the latter of which need not presuppose former.
Angel Veneration and Christology. A Study in Early Judaism and in the Christology of the Apocalypse of John by Loren T. Stuckenbruck