By Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole
A brand new variation of the UK's general advent to the risks provided via ionizing radiation and the tools of security and control.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E
These studies illustrated the early forms of damage produced by X-rays and gave some indication of the longer term effects. For some types of damage, such as skin cancer, there is a latency period of between 10 and 30 years, and some radiologists observed malignant skin changes as late as 25 years after discontinuing ﬂuoroscopic examinations. By 1922, it was estimated that more than 100 radiologists had died from radiation-induced cancer. Similarly, it has been estimated that the death rate from leukaemia among early radiologists was about nine times that among other physicians.
5. What is the major late effect of radiation and upon what assumptions are risk estimates based? 6. Using a nominal risk coefﬁcient of 5 ¥ 10−2/Sv, calculate the risk from a dose of (a) 5 mSv and (b) 20 mSv. 1 INTRODUCTION Throughout history, man has been exposed to radiation from the environment. This natural background radiation comes from two main sources: cosmic radiation and socalled ‘primordial’ radiation from terrestrial sources. Note that both of these sources can lead to radioactivity within the body.
The systems that are most relevant to an understanding of the behaviour of radioactive substances that enter the body are the circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems (see Fig. 1). 1 The circulatory system The circulatory system is a closed circuit of tubes around which blood is pumped by the action of the heart. Blood is the transport mechanism of the body and it circulates to almost every region, carrying nutrients (from food) and oxygen to the cells. It also picks up waste products and carbon dioxide and transfers them to the excretory organs.
An Introduction to Radiation Protection 6E by Alan Martin, Sam Harbison, Karen Beach, Peter Cole