By Sjoerd L. Bonting (Eds.)

ISBN-10: 1559382961

ISBN-13: 9781559382960

This primary quantity has contributions from the USA (4), the USSR (2), Europe (2), and Japan (1). They comprise reviews of a primary organic challenge aided through a few house experiments, investigations of organic difficulties encountered in spaceflight, use of microgravity for a biotechnological function, and technical amenities built for animal and mobilephone examine in area. themes comprise: the consequences of long term area missions at the human physique (Grigoriev, USSR); skeletal responses to microgravity (Morey-Holton an Arnaud, United States); gravity results on animal copy, advancements, and growing old (Miquel and Souza, Spain/United States); neurovestibular body structure in fish (Watanabe, Takabayashi, Tanaka, and Yanagihara, Japan); gravity belief and stream in crops (Brown, United States); improvement of upper vegetation below altered gravitational stipulations (Merkys and Laurniavcius, Lithunaia, USSR); gravity results on unmarried cells (Cogoli and Gmunder, Switzerland); protein crystal progress in house (Bonting, Kishiyama, and Arno, United States).

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Nauka, Moscow, 1986 (in Russian). 16. D. Central and Regional Hernodynamics in Prolonged Space Flights. Acta Astronaulica, 17(27):173-179, 1983. 17. H. 1972. Vascular Function. In: Humrm Physiology, vol. F. ), pp. 101-190. MU, Moscow, 1985 (translated from English). 34 ANATOLYI 1. GRlGORlEV and ANATOLYI D. EGOROV 18. Z. &says on Clinical Physiology of Circulation. Medizina, Moscow, 1965 (in Russian). 19. At’kov, 0. S. Hypokinesia and Weightlessness: Clinical and Physiological Aspects. In: Biomedical, Social an Psychological Problems of Exploration of Space and Extreme Earth Environments.

52, p. 180). Since low body fat is indicative of intensive exercise and the heel bone mass is dependent on exercise:‘ the loss of bone mass in these crew members may have been due to the change in exercise status or diet during spaceflight. One factor associated with individual variation in demineralization of the 0s calcis is the relative amounts of exercise before and during the flight. Exercise countermeasures are now firmly established and are rountinely performed by astronauts and cosmonauts.

C. Biomechanics .......................................... D. Composition and Growth ................................. E. Other Changes ......................................... F. Comparison with Flight Results ............................ Conclusion and Summary .................................... A. General 1. 58 58 59 60 61 61 62 63 INTRODUCTION The skeletal system of vertebrate animals, including humans, has been evolving for millions of years under the constant influence of gravity. Gravitational loading and function have determined the shape, size, composition, and strength of bones.

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A Research Annual by Sjoerd L. Bonting (Eds.)

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